Number of high growth firms – seen as indicator of economic health – reaches nearly 12,000, highest level since the dotcom boom.
The number of companies achieving high growth in the UK’s nations and regions is rising more than twice as fast as in London, new research suggests.
Analysis by the Enterprise Research Centre (ERC), the UK’s leading independent institute for research into small and medium size businesses, shows that the number of ‘high-growth firms’ (HGFs) across the UK has risen to 11,855 – the largest number since the dotcom boom of the early 2000s.
According to the OECD’s definition, a HGF is a firm that has at least 10 employees and records an annual average growth of 20% in employment over three years. In 2012-15, HGFs accounted for 7.5% of all firms of this size in the UK.
HGFs are regarded as important ‘bellwethers’ of economic vitality because, despite accounting for a small proportion of all firms, they generate a disproportionately large share of the increase in jobs. ERC research has shown that HGFs create around a third of the increase in private sector jobs in the three-year periods over which they are measured.
London continues to have the largest number of HGFs both in absolute terms and as a proportion of its population of 10+ employee-businesses among the English Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) areas (2,430 in 2012/15 or 9.5% of all firms of 10+ employees in the capital).
However, a striking trend since the recession of 2008/9 has been the rapid increase in HGF numbers in areas outside London. The data shows that some parts of England are displaying a dynamic not previously observed that is enabling them to close the longstanding gap with the capital.
Excluding London, England saw its number of HGFs rise by 36% from 2009-12 to 2012-15, from 5,755 to 7,855, making up 7.2% of all 10+ employee-businesses. Over the same period, the number of HGFs in London rose by just 15%, from 2,105 to 2,430.
Scotland increased its number of HGFs by 35% over the same period, from 534 to 722, while Wales’ figure went up by 38%, from 265 to 365. In both nations, HGFs formed 6.5% of all businesses of 10+ employees in 2012-15.
Looking at individual LEP areas:
- Liverpool saw the number of its firms classed as HGFs increase by 56% between 2009 and 2015, from 141 to 220. Merseyside now has the second-highest rate of HGFs as a proportion of its total firms with 10 or more employees in England (8.5%), behind only London.
- Other LEP areas with big rises in the number and rate of HGFs include West of England – covering Bristol and Bath – (up 62% from 154 to 250), Solent – covering Southampton and Portsmouth (up 64% from 185 to 304) and Leeds City Region (up 40% from 384 to 538). These three areas climbed into the national ‘top 10’ LEPs by 2012-2015, from relatively low rankings in 2009-12, as their proportion of HGFs as a share of the total stock of businesses with 10 or more employees rose substantially.
- Many LEP areas in the South East, meanwhile, saw more modest increases in HGF numbers: Buckinghamshire Thames Valley saw its number of HGFs rise by just 2% between 2009 and 2015 (from 97 to 99), while Oxfordshire’s HGF numbers went up from 110 to 122 (11%). As a result their HGF incidence rate ranking fell quite dramatically over the period.
Professor Mark Hart, Deputy Director of the Enterprise Research Centre, said:
“The number of HGFs in the UK is now at its highest level in well over a decade and it’s particularly notable that both urban and rural parts of the English regions are seeing much more rapid rises in such firms than London.
“These are exactly the sort of firms we need more of in our economy, because they create a huge proportion of overall jobs relative to their small size in the business population.
“Some Local Enterprise Partnership areas appear to be creating the right environment in the recovery period for the emergence of more HGFs. We need to learn the lessons of what’s working to support fast-growing businesses in these areas so we can replicate it more widely.”
Irene Graham, CEO of the Scale-Up Institute, said:
“Scaling businesses are vital to our local economies, driving jobs, productivity and opportunity. Supporting these high growth firms in their expansion is crucial. Our large corporates, financiers, universities, local authorities, advisors, and LEPs all have critical roles to play in leaning in to support scaling firms.
“We have a tremendous opportunity. Let’s make sure we are developing the skills, fostering the talent, and creating the international connections to enable the UK’s high growth firms to realise their fullest potential.”
Notes to Editors
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- The OECD High-Growth Firm (HGF) metric has a very precise definition. It includes ‘continuing firms’ (firms which are born before the beginning of a designated three year period and are alive at its end) with at least 10 employees at the beginning of the period, and which record average growth of 20% in employment per annum over the three-year period. We define the HGF incidence rate as the number of HGFs divided by the number of continuing firms with 10+ employees expressed as a percentage of continuing 10+ employee firms.
- Map – English LEPs with highest and lowest incidence of High Growth Firms (HGFs) as a proportion of all firms with 10+ employees, 2012-15.3. Graph – Incidence Rate of HGFs as proportion of all firms of 10+ employees, London vs England, Scotland, Wales, UK, 2006-09 to 2012-15.
4. Graph – Incidence Rate of HGFs as proportion of all firms of 10+ employees, selected LEPs, 2006-09 to 2012-15.
5. Table –Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) areas of England and UK devolved nations by number of High Growth Firms, ranked by % change between 2009-12 and 2012-15 (UK average = +30%):
|LEP||HGF Number 2009-12||HGF Number 2012-15||% Change|
|West of England||154||250||62%|
|Sheffield City Region||170||265||56%|
|Liverpool City Region||141||220||56%|
|Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly||61||95||56%|
|York and North Yorkshire||128||194||52%|
|Coast to Capital||254||378||49%|
|Heart of the South West||186||274||47%|
|Greater Birmingham and Solihull||220||312||42%|
|Leeds City Region||384||538||40%|
|Derby, Derbyshire, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire,||261||354||36%|
|South East Midlands||224||303||35%|
|Cheshire and Warrington||144||192||33%|
|Leicester and Leicestershire||140||181||29%|
|Swindon and Wiltshire||85||107||26%|
|Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire||124||151||22%|
|Coventry and Warwickshire||130||157||21%|
|Greater Cambridge & Greater Peterborough||221||259||17%|
|Thames Valley Berkshire||186||213||15%|
|Buckinghamshire Thames Valley||97||99||2%|
|ENGLAND (EXCL LONDON)||5,755||7,855||36%|
6. Ranking of Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) areas of England and UK devolved nations by incidence (rate as percentage of all firms of 10+ employees) of High Growth Firms, 2012-15 (UK average = 7.5%):
|LEP||HGF Rate (Percentage of all firms of 10+ employees) 2009-12||Rank 2009-12||HGF Rate (Percentage of all firms of 10+ employees) 2012-15||Rank 2012-15|
|Liverpool City Region||5.3%||19||8.5%||2|
|Cheshire and Warrington||6.4%||4||8.4%||3|
|West of England||5.3%||19||8.4%||3|
|Coast to Capital||5.8%||9||8.3%||5|
|Thames Valley Berkshire||7.4%||2||8%||6|
|Leeds City Region||5.5%||15||7.8%||9|
|Coventry and Warwickshire||6.4%||4||7.5%||11|
|Greater Birmingham and Solihull||5.3%||19||7.5%||11|
|Derby, Derbyshire, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire,||5.4%||16||7.3%||15|
|Leicester and Leicestershire||5.7%||11||7.3%||15|
|South East Midlands||5.4%||16||7.3%||15|
|Sheffield City Region||4.4%||33||7%||21|
|Greater Cambridge & Greater Peterborough||5.3%||7||6.9%||22|
|Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly||4.4%||33||6.8%||24|
|York and North Yorkshire||4.5%||31||6.8%||24|
|Heart of the South West||4.6%||29||6.7%||27|
|Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire||5.2%||23||6.5%||29|
|Swindon and Wiltshire||5.3%||19||6.5%||29|
|Buckinghamshire Thames Valley||6.5%||3||6.4%||32|
|ENGLAND (EXCL LONDON)||5.3%||n/a||7.2%||n/a|
About the Enterprise Research Centre
ERC is the UK’s leading independent research institute on the drivers behind the growth and productivity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
ERC is producing the new knowledge around SMEs that will allow us to create a business-friendly environment nationwide, grounded in hard evidence. We want to understand what makes entrepreneurs and firms thrive so we can spread the lessons from best practice and make the UK a more successful country.
Funded by the Economic & Social Research Council, the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, Innovate UK and the British Business Bank, our projects for 2016-18 reflect our key themes: growth ambition, UK business demography, diversity in the business population, finance & governance, innovation & exporting and leadership. Our core research team is centred at Warwick Business School and Aston Business School and draw on a network of world-class academics from across our partner Universities including Imperial College London, Queens University Belfast, Birmingham Business School and the University of Strathclyde.
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